There Was No Agreement The Great Powers
October 11, 2021
The papacy secured France`s support for opposing the union, fearing that relinquishing control of the ecclesiastical state would weaken the Church and allow liberals to dominate conservative Catholics.  The Kingdom of Italy finally took over the ecclesiastical state in 1870, when the French army was withdrawn. The angry pope declared himself a prisoner; his successor, Pope Pius XI, finally made peace with Italy in 1929.  After 1870, Italy was recognized as the sixth great power, although much weaker than the others.  After initial successes, the Greek rebels were swept away by internal quarrels. The Ottomans, with the help of Egypt, cruelly suppressed the rebellion and severely punished the Greeks. Humanitarian concerns in Europe were outraged, as the English poet Lord Byron embodied. The context of the intervention of the three great powers was the long-standing expansion of Russia at the expense of the decaying Ottoman Empire. However, Russia`s ambitions in the region have been seen by other European powers as a major geostrategic threat. Austria feared that the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire would destabilize its southern borders. Russia has provided strong emotional support to the Greek Orthodox Christians. The British were motivated by the strong public support for the Greeks.
Fearing unilateral Russian measures in support of the Greeks, Britain and France contractually committed Russia to a joint intervention aimed at guaranteeing Greek autonomy while preserving the territorial integrity of the Ottomans as control of Russia.  The German navy was not strong enough to confront the British during World War I; the Great Naval Battle of Jutland could not end Britain`s control over the seas or break the suffocating blockade. Germany turned to submarine warfare. Martial law required efforts to allow passengers and crew members to board lifeboats before sinking a ship. The Germans despised the law and incubated in the most dramatic episode the Lusitania 1915 in a few minutes. == asked that it cease, and Germany did. Admiral Henning von Holtzendorff (1853-1919), Chief of the Admiralty General Staff, fought successfully in early 1917 to resume the attacks and thus starve the British. .